The olive is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, found in much of Africa, the Mediterranean Basin from Portugal to the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Asia as far east as China, as well as the Canary Islands, Mauritius and Réunion. The species is cultivated in many places and considered naturalized in Algeria, France (including Corsica), Greece, Cyprus, Malta, Croatia, Albania, Crimea, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Jordan, Spain, Palestine, Syria, Lebanon, Java, Norfolk Island, California and Bermuda.
The olive's fruit, also called the olive, is of major agricultural importance in the Mediterranean region as the source of olive oil. The tree and its fruit give their name to the plant family, which also includes species such as lilacs, jasmine, Forsythia and the true ash trees (Fraxinus). The oldest attested forms of the latter two words in Greek are respectively the Mycenaean, e-ra-wa, e-ra-wo, e-rai-wo, written in the Linear B syllabic script. The word "oil" in multiple languages ultimately derives from the name of this tree and its fruit.